Part 4 Ethics terminology for UPSC IAS MAINS EXAM

Part 4 Ethics terminology for UPSC IAS MAINS EXAM

11) Golden mean
We must treat others as we wish others to treat us
12) The seven deadly sins

  1. Pride
  2. Greed
  3. Lust
  4. Anger
  5. Gluttony
  6. Envy
  7. Sloth

13) Attitude:

Attitude reflects our liking or disliking to a particular object

Three objects : Cognitive, affective and behavioral



Behavioral: past behaviors or experiences shaping the attitude

14) Benevolence : it is the love of others, the desire to do good, be kind and generous

15) Utilization of public funds

Ethical issues

  • Misuse of funds – wasteful expenditure on ads
  • Misallocation – funds for education used somewhere is else
  • Priorities – urban centre’s gets huge funds though rural remains backward
  • Corruption and embezzlement of funds. 
  • Kickbacks
  • Non transparency in public procurement
  • Time lapses in fund allocation since it has to pass through various layers
  • Lack of powers at low level for spending – this leads to delay in payments
  • Lack of fund allocation
  • Lack of capacity with the officials for efficient fund utilization – TN though more developed gets comparatively higher funds than BH
  • State govt have a weak financial capacity to
  • contribute additional funding

How to improve?

  • Publicexpenditures tracking using newspapers and radios. Maintenance and display of data on funds
  • Community control of program implementation
  • Citizen report cards
  • Benchmarking of expenditures
  • Transparency in public procurement
  • CSO involvement in scrutinize public expenditures
  • Social audit
  • Strengthen financial audit

16) Quality of Service Delivery
How to improve?

  • Capacity building of the service providers
  • Performance based bonus and appraisals
  • Contractual employment
  • Leadership
  • Capability for service delivery
  • Measuring the outcomes to inputs – What gets measured gets managed
  • Electronic delivery of services

Public Side
Empowerment of local communities in making the service provider accountable

  • Citizen charter
  • Ensuring citizens right to kno
  • GRM
  • PPP


  • PDS in TN
  • Passport Seva Kendra
  • Speed Post – Online tracking
  • 101 Ambulance 24×7 support

35) Work Culture
It is a set of collective beliefs, values, rules and behavior which an organization as a whole conforms to.
West vs Indian Work Culture

  1. In west, the culture is more casual – Flat table offices and absence of strict hierarchy. In India, a strict and more rigid hierarchy is followed
  2. In west, even the boss is called with his/her first name. In India, Sir/madam are invariably used which shows the distance between the senior and
  3. junior. This leads to lack of bonding and an
  4. efficient work culture
  5. Quality vs. Quantity
  6. Seniority vs. Merit
  7. Definition of a workplace – Gym, Swimming pool etc. In India, work means work.
  8. Company paid holidays and more focus on spiritual well-being to ensure positive work life balance

Bureaucratic vs Private Culture 
Positive of Bureaucracy
Dedication – Police, NDRF, teachers etc
Public values as the guide
Compassion to the work – Teacher transfer in TN and students protest
Going an extra mile to do some works


  • Rigid weberian model
  • Corruption, nepotism, favoritism, conflict of interests
  • Abuse of authority
  • No focus for individuality
  • Lack of incentives for being honest Treating juniors badly – Sahayak system Complacency
  • Lack of responsibility
  • Lack of innovations
  • Monopoly in service deliver

Private – Positives

  • Strict targets and deadlines
  • Performance based appraisal
  • Merit > Seniority
  • Individuality and innovation are encouraged
  • Team spirit
  • Lack of rigidity. Seniors are more approachable
  • Hire and fire mode – efficiency is very high
  • Competitive atmosphere

Ways to improve

  • Training and capacity building
  • Target fixation – rewards
  • Citizen engagement